رویکرد چارچوب کنونی حقوق فضا به فعالیتهای فضاییِ تجاری: تجویزی یا تحدیدی

نوع مقاله: مقالة‌ تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

با درج مقرراتی در اسناد حقوق فضا، دریچه‌ای برای فعالیت‌های فضاییِ تجاری مفتوح گردید. از عصر معاهدات فضا، همواره استفاده‌های تجاری از فضا بواسطه تزاید بازیگران و توسعه‌ی فناوری‌های نوینِ فضاپایه سرعت بیشتری گرفته‌اند. هر چند چارچوب کنونی در همگامی با مسائل حقوقی ناشی از این فرایند سریع و مستمر تکافو نمی‌کند، لکن مقررات همین اسناد تاکنون مبنای عمل دولت‌ها و نهادهای غیردولتی در انجام فعالیت‌های فضاییِ تجاری بوده است. این نوشتار با مفروض گرفتن نیاز به توسعه‌ی بیشتر حقوق فضا با لحاظ بُعد تجاری آن، لکن در نظر دارد از ظرفیت‌های چارچوب موجود، امکان یا امتناع فعالیت‌های تجاری را مورد بررسی قرار دهد و اینکه چه اندازه توسعه‌ی حقوق نرم از طریق همکاری‌های بین‌المللی و توسعه‌ی قوانین فضاییِ ملّی به هنجارگرایی نسبی فضا و پر کردن کاستی‌های نظام معاهده‌ای کمک کرده است. بررسی اولیه حاکی از تجویز این فعالیت‌ها علی‌رغم توقف هنجارسازیِ قراردادی و وجود محدودیت‌های منبعث از اصولی همچون منع تصاحب، میراث مشترک بشریت و تسهیم عادلانه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The current framework of Space Law approach to commercial space activities: prescriptive or restrictive

نویسندگان [English]

  • s. Hadi Mahmoudi 1
  • Rohollah Rohami 2
  • Hamid Heidaree 3
1 Department of Shahid Beheshti University
2 Department of Tehran University
3 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

By incorporating provisions in Space Law documents, gateway for commercial space activities was opened. From the era of space treaties, commercial uses always are getting faster Due to the increasing of players and development of new technologies. Although the current framework does not comply with the legal issues arising from rapid and ongoing process, the provisions of these instruments have so far been the basis for action by governments & Non-governmental Orgs. in carrying such activities. This paper assuming the need to further development of space law in terms of its commercial dimension, but intends to consider the possibility or refusal of commercial activities and the status of soft law through international cooperation and development of national space legislation to relative normality of space. An initial review indicates the prescription of these activities, despite the cessation of contractual normalization and existence of constraints derived from principles such as the prohibition of appropriation, the common heritage of mankind & equitable sharing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commercialization
  • Space Actors
  • legal uncertainty
  • relative normality
  • Non-Appropriation
  • common heritage of mankind
  • Equitable sharing
  • mining of cultural resources
  • Soft Law
  • National regulation
[1]Von der Dunk, Frans G., "International trade aspects of space services", Handbook Space Law, 2015, pp.814- 872.

[2] Lyall, F. and Larsen, P., Space Law at Reatise", Translation S. M. Hosseini, Majd Publication, 2014, pp. 600-601, (in Persian)

 [3] Van Traa-Engelman, Hanneke Louise, Commercial Utilization of Outer Space: Law and Practice, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, pp. 277-278

[4] Masson-Zwaan, Tanja, Symposium on Legal Aspects of Space Resource Utilisation, University Leiden, 2016.

[5] Traa-Engelman, ibid, p.278

[6] Velocci, Anthony, "Commercialization in space: Changing boundaries and future promises", Harvard International Review, 33(4), 2012, pp.49-53.

[7] Mahmoudi, S. H., International Space Law, Samt Publication 2015, pp. 22-25, (in Persian)

 [8]Diederiks-Verschoor, I. H. Philepina, An Introduction to Space Law, Springer 1993, p.4.

[9] United Nations, Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Art.I.

[10] Masson-Zwaan, op.cit, Symposium 2016

[11] Hobe, Stephan, "The Impact of New Developments on International Space Law (new actors, commercialization, privatization, increase in number of “space-faring nations”, etc.)", Uniform Law Review, Volume 15, Issue 3-4, 1 August 2010, p.874, https://doi.org/ 10.1093/ ulr/15.3-4.869.

[12] Rosenfield, Stanley B., "use in economidc development of outer space", proceeding of the 24th colloquium on the law of outer space of the IISL. Rome, September 1981, pp 73-77.

[13] Von­ der Dunk, Frans G., "Asteroid Mining: International and national legal Adpects", Current Issue: Volume 26, Issue 1, 2017, pp.3-6.

[26] Traa-Engelman, 1993, op.cit; Rosenfield, ibid.

[15] Tronchetti, Fabio, "Current International Legal Framework Applicability to Space Resource Activities", IISL/ECSL Space Law Symposium, Vienna 27 March 2017. 

[16] Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015, H.R. 1508, 114th Cong. (2015). 

[17] IISL December 2015 Position Paper: "Does International Space Law either Permit or Prohibit the taking of Resources in Outer Space and on Celestial Bodies, and how is this relevant for National Actors? What is the Context, and what are the Contours and limita of the Permission or Prohibition?", International Institute of Space Law, Directorate of Studies, Background Paper, under the editorship of Professor Stephan Hobe, 2016. Available at http: www.iislweb.org.

[18] USLEGAL.COM, http://definitions.uslegal.com /p/pedis-possessio-doctrine

[19] Davis, Benjamin G., Property Rights in Space: Assuring Economic Development, Published in The SciTech Lawyer, Volume 11, Number 1, Fall 2014, p.21

[20] Tronchetti, Fabio, "Legal aspects of space resource utilization", Handbook of Space Law, 2015, p.779- 780

[21] Traa-Engelman, op.cit, p.22; Von der Dunk, 2017, op.cit, pp.87-88

[22] Masson-Zwaan, 2016, op.cit.

[23] Kfir, Sagi, "Space Resource Utilization and National Law: The Case for the U.S.A.", University of Leiden, April 2016, p. 26.

[24] Outer Space Treaty Art. VII

[25] Rosenfield, 1981, op.cit, pp.73-77; Tatsuzawa, Kunihiko, The Regulation of Commercial Space Activities by the Non-Governmental Entities in Space Law, Faculty of Law and Research Institute, Chuo Gakuin University, Tokyo Japan, 1981.

[26] Outer Space Treaty Arts. VII and VIII

[27] Outer Space Treaty Art. IX; Von der Dunk, ibid

[28] Tronchetti, Symposium 2017, op.cit

[29] Masson-Zwaan, 2016, op.cit

[30] United Nations, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Art.VI

[31] Moon Agreement Art.IX.

[32] Ibid, para.2

[33] Xinmin, MA, "The Development of Space Law: Framework, Objectives and Orientations", Speech at United Nations/China/APSCO Workshop on Space Law, Deputy Director-General, Department of Treaty and Law, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The People’s Republic of China- Beijing, November 17, 2014

[34] Moon Agreement Art.X.

[35] Moon Agreement Art.VI, Para.II.

[36] Moon Agreement Art.XI, para.V.

[37] Hobe, 2010, op.cit, pp.875-877

[38] Moon Agreement Art.XI, para.VII

[39] Traa-Engelman, 1993, op.cit, pp.25-26

[40] Tronchetti, 2015, op.cit, pp.788-792

[41] Kfir, 2016, op.cit, p.27.

[42] Statement 2008 by states parties to Moon Agreement, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Legal Subcommittee, Forty-seventh session A/AC.105/ C.2/ 2008/CRP.11.

[43] Tronchetti, 2015, ibid, p.788.

[44] IISL Board, 2009, op.cit; Masson-Zwaan, op.cit, Symposium 2016.

[45] Moon Agreement Art.XI, para.V

[46] Statement 2008 by states parties to Moon Agreement, ibid.

[47] Grey, Jerry, "Civilian space Policy and Applications", Chairman American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Princeton University, June 1982, pp.347-355.

[48] A/AC.105/C.2/L.301/Add.5

[49] A/73/20, June 2018; A/AC.105/L.313

[50] UN Doc.A/AC.105/C.2/L.272

[51] UN GA: A/71/20, 2016, para. 296

[52] A/AC.105/1166, Dec.13 2017, pp.2-5

[53] Dubai Declaration, November 2016, para.12

[54] Zhao, Yun, Space Commercialization and the Development of Space Law, Online Publication Date: Jul 2018, DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/ 9780190647926. 013.42

[55] Von der Dunk, 2015, pp.817-818

[56] Report of WIPO, 2004

[57] Pocar, Fausto. (2012). An introduction to the PCA’s optional rules for arbitration of disputes relating to outer space activities. Journal of Space Law, 38, 171–210.

[58] Report of the 68th Conference, Taipei; Report of the 69th Conference, London.

[59] Report of the Space Law Committee, Part II, 2004, p.759

[60] Resolution No.6/2012, ILA Conference, Sofia.

[61] Report of the Space Law Committee, Part II, National Space Legislation, in Report of the 71st Conference, Berlin, 2004

[62] Jakhu R. S. & Pelton J. N. (2013). Small Satellites and their regulation, Springer Science & Business Media, p.577 Retrieved of https://books.google.com/

[63] Marboe, Irmgard, (2015). National space law in Frans von der Dunk & Fabio Tronchetti, RESEARCH HANDBOOKS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, p.128.This book is available electronically in the Law subject collection, Elgaronline: DOI 10.4337/ 9781781000366.

[64] Gerhard, M. & Schrogl, K.U., Report of the ‘Project 2001’ Working Group on National Space Legislation, in ‘Project 2001’ -Legal Framework for the Commercial Use of Outer Space (Ed. K.H. Böckstiegel), 2002, pp.552-558; Gerhard, M. & Moll, K.,The Gradual Change from ‘Building Blocks’ to a Common Shape of National Space Legislation in Europe –Summary of Findings and Conclusions, in Project 2001 Plus – Towards a Harmonised Approach for National Space Legislation in Europe (Eds. S. Hobe, B. Schmidt-Tedd & K.U. Schrogl), 2004, pp.48-49; Verlag, C. H.,Legal framework for the commercial use of outer space, Proceedings of an International Colloquium Cologne, Institute of Air and Space Law: University of Cologne & German Aerospace Center, 2002, p.530.

[65] Report of the 71st Conference, Berlin, 2004, p.759

[66] Sofia Resolution No. 6/2012, ILA Conference

[67] UNGA Res 68/74 of 11 December 2013, UN Doc.A/68/74; UN Doc. A/ AC. 105/C.2/101, 3 April 2012

[68] Hobe S. & Hettling J. Challenges to Space Law in the 21st Century – Project 2001 Plus//IISL Proceedings of the 45th Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, Houston 2002, 2003, 57-62

[69] Statement by the Board of Directors of IISL, 2004

[70] Statement by the Board of Directors of IISL, 2009

[71] Position Paper of IISL, December 2015.

[72] Mahmoudi, S. H., International Space Law, Samt Publication 2015, p. 185, (in Persian)

[73] Zhao, 2018, op.cit.

[74] Merchant, Brian, The Problem with Asteroid Mining, Motherboard (Jan. 23, 2013, 11:28 AM), http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/the-problem-with-asteroid-mining.

[75] von der Dunk, 2017, op.cit, p.86

[76] Hobe, 2010, op.cit, p.870; Tronchetti, 2015, op. cit, p 780

[77] Outer Space Treaty Art. VI

[78] Sterns, P.M. & Tennen L.I., "Privateering and Profiteering on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies: Debunking the Myth of Property Rights in Space", in Proceedings of the Forty-Fifth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 2003, p.59.

[79]Position Paper on Space Resource Mining, Adopted by consensus by The Board of Directors of International Institute of Space Law (IISL) on issue of 'property rights' in outer space, 2004. Available at http: www.iislweb.org.

[80] Masson-Zwaan, 2016, op.cit

[81] Grey, 1982, op.cit

[82]Rana, Harminderpal Singh, "The Common Heritage of Mankind & the Final Frontier: A Revaluation of Values Constituting the International Legal Regime for Outer Space Activities", 26 Rutgers Law Journal, 1994, p.225.

[83] Moon Agreement Art.XI, para.II

[84] Tronchetti, Fabio, The Exploitation of Natural Resources of the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Brill Martinus Nijhoff, 2009, pp.38–61, 85–130; Viikari, Lotta, From Manganese Nodules to Lunar Regolith: A Comparative Legal Study of the Utilization of Natural Resources in the Deep Seabed and Outer Space, University of Lapland, 2002.

[85]Sterns, P.M., Stine, G.H. & Tennen, L.I., "Preliminary Jurisprudential Observation Concerning Property Rights on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies in the Commercial Age", in Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1997, p.49

[86] Moon Agreement Art.XI, para.V

[87] Tronchetti, Symposium 2017, op.cit.

[88] Moon Agreement, Art.11-7-d.

[89] Tronchetti, 2015, op.cit, p.787

[90] Benson, Jim w., "Space Resources: First Come First Served", in Proceedings of the Forty-First Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 1999, p.46; Dinkin, Sam, "Property rights and space commercialization", May 10, 2004. http://www. thespacereview. om/article/141/1.

[91] Grey, 1982, op.cit

[92] SPACE 2030, OECD, 2005, p.12

[93] White, 1997; SPACE 2030, OECD, 2005

[94] Vereshchetin V. S.,  The Law of Outer Space in the General Legal Field (Commonality and Particularities), Revista Brasileira de Direito Aeronáutico e Espacial, 42-49, 2010, p. 44  Retrieved from https://sbda.org.br/wp-content/ uploads/ 2018/ 10/1826.pdf.

[95] Mahmoudi, S. H., International Space Law, Samt Publication 2015, pp. 195-196, (in Persian)

[96] A/AC.105/1137, Sep.20 2016.