نوع مقاله : مقالة‌ تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسنده

گروه حقوق هوافضا، پژوهشگاه هوافضا ، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران

10.22034/jsst.2021.1253

چکیده

بسیاری از کاربردهای فضایی که قبلاً با استفاده از ماهواره های بزرگ امکان پذیر بودند، اکنون به دلیل توسعه فناوری، توسط ماهواره های بسیارکوچک انجام می شوند. مقررات بین المللی فضایی که بر بهره برداری ماهواره های بزرگ با فناوری پیشرفته حاکم هستند، همچنین بر مسئولیت دولت ها برای تنظیم و کنترل ماهواره های کوچک قابلیت اعمال دارند. با وجود این، اولا در سال های اخیر، فعالیت بخش خصوصی در فضایی با بهره برداری از ماهواره های کوچک بدون رعایت مقررات مربوطه افزایش یافته است و ثانیا برخی موضوعات مثل فعالیت بخش خصوصی و یا انتقال مالکیت ماهواره ها در معاهدات بین المللی مسکوت است. لذا، مسئولیت دولتها به چالش کشیده شده است. این مقاله با بررسی مسئولیت دولتها برای بهره برداری از ماهواره های کوچک، به دو چالش جدی مرتبط یعنی فعالیت بخش خصوصی و انتقال مالکیت ماهواره های کوچک در مدار می پردازد و نهایتا راه حل هایی برای رفع این چالش ها ارائه می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

States' Responsibility to Operate Small Satellites in International Space Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Kazemi

Aerospace Law Group, Aerospace Research Institute, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Many of the space applications that previously required the use of large, complex and expensive satellites have now been made possible by very small satellites due to the development of technology. The applicable international laws and regulations, which typically govern large satellite operations with sophisticated technology, also govern state's responsibility for regulating and controlling small satellites. However, in recent years, the private sector has increased its commercial use of small satellites without complying with applicable regulations. As a result, the irregular operation of small satellites in space has increased in orbits without states oversight. Therefore, the responsibility of states in the international space community to regulate the operation of small satellites has been challenged. This paper focuses on the responsibility of states and two challenges arise in relation to the responsibility of states in the operation of small satellites; activity of private section and transfer small satellites ownership into orbits. Finally, the author proposes solutions to address these challenges.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Responsibility
  • space activity
  • Space objects
  • small sattelite
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