نوع مقاله : مقالة‌ تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی ، حقوق خصوصی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 پژوهشکده حقوق، مدیریت و استاندارهای هوافضایی، پژوهشگاه هوافضا، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فعالیت‎های فضایی که از گذشته برای دولت‎ها به عنوان بازیگران اصلی و سنتی صنعت فضایی، اهمیتی فوق‎العاده داشته، امروزه برای اشخاص غیر دولتی و خصوصی نیز که بازیگران جدید صنعت فضایی محسوب می‎شوند، جذابیت ایجاد کرده است. بی‎گمان در این عرصه، فناوری پیش‎شرط اجرا و توسعه فعالیت‎های فضایی است. دولت‎های درحال توسعه و کمتر توسعه یافته، سعی میکنند با تصویب قوانین ملی فضایی راه را برای انجام این فعالیت‎ها هموار کنند، ولی باید گفت که هنوز در این مسیر موانع زیادی موجود است. یکی از این موانع، قوانین و مقررات محدودکننده‎ کشورهای پیشرفته و توسعه یافته نسبت به انتقال فناوری در صنعت فضایی است. شناسایی ابعاد این موانع و محدودیت‎ها و ارزیابی آنها از نقطه نظر حقوق مالکیت فکری، موضوع این مقاله است. تنازع و برخورد میان گرایش به سمت تجاری‎سازیِ فعالیت‎های فضایی و کنترل شدید بر انتقال فناوری در صنعت فضایی یکی از نتایجی است که این مقاله به آن دست یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Intellectual Property Rights and Transfer of Technology in Space Industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saied Habiba 1
  • Hamid Kazemi 2
  • Milad Sadeghi 2

1 Faculty of Law and Political Science, The University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, IRAN

چکیده [English]

From the past, space activities which has been extremely important for governments as the main and traditional players in the space industry, are now attractive to non-governmental and private individuals, who are the new actors in the space industry. Undoubtedly, in this field, technology is a prerequisite for implementation and development of space activities. Developing and less developed governments are trying to pave the way for these activities by passing national space legislations, but it should be noted that there are still many obstacles in this way. One of these obstacles is existence of restrictive acts and regulations of developed countries on transfer of technology in space industry. Identifying dimensions of these barriers and limitations and evaluating them from the standpoint of intellectual property rights is the subject of this article. The conflict between tendency towards commercialization of space activities and tight control over technology transfer in the space industry is one of the results that this article has achieved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Export Control"
  • Missile Technology Control Regime"
  • National Space Laws and Regulations"
  • Outer Space"
  • The TRIPS Agreement"
  • "
  • The Wassenaar Arrangement"
[1] V. Kopal, Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies. YB Air & Space L.., p. 463. 1966.
[2] Cocca AA. Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. Manual on space law. vol. 1; pp. 173-93,1979.
[3] WF. Foster The convention on international liability for damage caused by space objects. Canadian Yearbook of International Law/Annuaire canadien de droit international. 10, pp. 137-85,1973.
[4]Chantal, Thomas, “Transfer of Technology in the Contemporary International Order”, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 5, p. 2096, 1998.
[5]Available, [on line]: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/technology.
[6]Available, [on line]: https://www.definitions.net/definition/space+technology.
[7] Guidance on export of technology, Department for  Business Innovation & Skills, Report, March 2010, p. 5.
[8]E. Rahbari, Technology transfer rights, Samt, Edite 2, pp. 144-145, 2014.
[9] M. Sadeghi, M. Ahsani-forouz, M. Issaei Tafreshi and M.gh. Jafarzadeh, "The obligations of the parties in the contract for transfer of technology," Vol.15, Issue 3, p. 95, 2011.
[10] E. Rahbari, Ibid p. 95.
[11] M. Javan, Law basics, Vol. 2, Rangin, pp. 299-301, 1948.
[12]Republic Act No. 8293, Known as the “Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines”, Section 89.
[12, 13] Ibid, Section 88.2 and 88.4.
[12-14] Ibid, Section 88.6.
[12-15] Ibid, Section 88.14.
[12-16] Ibid, Section 91.
[17] A. P. Newcombe and L. Paradell, Law and practice of investment treaties: standards of treatment: Kluwer Law International BV, p. 31, 2009.
[17, 18] Ibid.
[19] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3201 (S-VI): Declaration on the Establishment of A New International Economics Order, at 4 (p).
[20] Newcombe, Andrew and Paradell, Lluis, Op.cit, p. 32.
[21] M.D. Öberg, "The legal effects of resolutions of the UN Security Council and General Assembly in the jurisprudence of the ICJ," European Journal of International Law.vol. 16, no. 5, pp.879-906, 2005.
[22] Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Right, hereinafter Trips Agreement, at preamble.
[23] Nguyen, Tu Thanh, Competition Law, Technology Transfer and the Trips Agreement, Implication for Developing Countries, Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc, p. 28, 2010.
[24] WTO Analytical Index, TRIPS Agreement – Preamble (Jurisprudence), Available: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/ai17_e/trips_preamble_jur.pdf.
[24, 25] Ibid, Article 66 (2).
[26] WTO Analytical Index, Trips Agreement-Article 66 (Practice), at 1.3, pdf file available Available:https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/ publications_e/ai17_e/trips_art66_oth.pdf.
[27] WTO Analytical Index, TRIPS Agreement – Article 7 (Practice) Trips Agreement, Article 7, Available: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/ publications_e/ai17_e/trips_art7_oth.pdf
[27, 28] Ibid, Article 8.
[29] Nguyen, Tu Thanh, Ibid, p. 28, 29.
[30]Hobe, Stephan, “The ILA-Model law for national space legislation”, the Aviation & Space Journal, XII No. 1, January/ March, p. 18, 2013.
[31] Ibid.

[32]Library of Congress, Foreign, Comparative & International Law, Available:  http://www.loc.gov/law/ foreign-news/article/united-kingdom-space-industry-bill-rocketing-through-parliament/.

[33]ILW Model Law on National Space Legislation, Article 4 (1) (b), (e).
[34] Iran newspaper, twenty-third year, number 6609, Wednesday, October 12, 2016, p. 8 (in persian).
[35] The Research Center of the Islamic Council, Report on the National Space-Necessity Law, its challenges and requirements in the country, publication date: 2018.06.25, pp. 20 and 21(in persian).
[36] Trips Agreement, at preamble.
[37] Handbook for New Actor In Space, Secure World Foundation, p. 25.
[38] Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944, Article 4.
[39] Handbook for New Actor In Space, Op.cit, p. 25.
[40] https://www.wassenaar.org/about-us/.
[41] Handbook for New Actor In Space, p. 25, 26.
[41, 42] Ibid.
[41-43] Ibid, p. 26.
[44] The Wassenaar Arrangment on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual Use Goods and Technologies, WA-LIST (15) 1 Corr. 1, 04-04-2016, at General Technology Note.
[44, 45] Ibid, at 9.E.2.
[44-46] Ibid, at General Technology Note.
[47] https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/mtcr.
[48] Hurewitz, J. Barry, “Non-Proliferation and Free Access to Outer Space: The Dual-Use Conflict between the Outer Space Treaty and the Missile Technology Control Regime”, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 9, Issue 2, September 1994, p. 225.
[48, 49] Ibid, p. 225, 226.
[48-50] Ibid, p. 226, 227.
[51] Handbook for New Actor In Space, Op.cit, p. 26.
[52] Space Industry Act 2018, Section 13 and Schedule 1.
[53] Tronchetti, Fabio, Foudamentals of Space Law and Policy, Springer, 2013, p. 33.
[54] P. J. Blount, “The ITAR Treaty and Its Implications for U.S Space Exploration Policy and the Commercial Space Industry”, Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 73, Issue 3, 2008, p. 709.
[54, 55] Ibid.
[56] Tronchetti, Fabio, Op.cit, p. 33.
[56, 57] Ibid.
[56-58] Ibid, p. 33, 34.
[59] National Space Policy of the United States of America, June 28, 2010, p. 8, pdf file available at: https://history.nasa.gov/national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf.
[60] Ibid.
[61] 22 U.S.C. Section 2278 (a) (1).
[62] Tronchetti, Fabio, Op.cit, p. 34.
[62, 63] Ibid.
[64] Stojak, M. Lucy, “Space Technology Export Controls”, International Lunar Conference 2005 (ILC 2005), Toronto, Canada 18-23 September 2005.
[65] Ibid.
[66] Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes, Availabe at: United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law, Meeting International Responsibilites and Addressing Domestci Needs: National Legislation and Policy Selected Texts, 21-24 November 2005, Abuja, Nigeria, pp. 44-52.
[66, 67] Ibid, Article 12 (1).