نقش حاکمیتی دولت‌‌ها در انجام فعالیت‌‌های فضایی از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله: مقالة‌ تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی/ پژوهشگاه هوافضا - گروه حقوق هوافضا

2 عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه هوافضا گروه حقوق هوافضا

چکیده

تعهد دولت‌ها در اجرای تعهدات بین‌المللی متضمن اعمال حاکمیت بر بخش‌های دولتی و خصوصی متبوع خود است. بر مبنای معاهدة فضای ماورای جو، دولت‌ها باید بر اشخاص حقیقی و حقوقی متبوع خود که در فعالیت‌های فضایی شرکت می‌کنند، نظارت داشته باشند. نحوة اعمال حاکمیت دولت‌ها بر فعالیت‌‌های فضایی براساس تدوین مقررات لازم برای صدور مجوز فعالیت‌های فضایی و ایجاد مقام صالح است. بررسی تطبیقی برخی قوانین ملی کشور‌ها نشان می‌دهد ساز و کار دولت‌‌ها بر اساس نظام‌‌های حقوقی حاکم بر آن‌ها متفاوت است لکن وجوه مشترکی در ایجاد مقررات و ایجاد مقام صالح برای اعمال حاکمیت بر فعالیت‌های فضایی وجود دارد. این مقاله، علاوه بر تبیین تعهد دولت‌ها از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی به بررسی تطبیقی برخی فعالیت‌های فضایی توجه می‌کند که دولت‌ها حاکمیت خود را در چارچوب تعیین مقام صالح و صدور مجوز‌های لازم بر آن‌ها اعمال می‌کنند که برای قانونگذار ملی در نحوة تدوین مقررات لازم مفید است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of States in Regulating Space Activities in International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Kazemi 1
  • Ali Akbar Golro 2
1 Faculty Member
2 Department of Aerospace research Institute
چکیده [English]

International regulations consist of rights and obligations of states in relation to space. States should respect the international obligations with all of their public and private sectors. Based on the 1967 outer space treaty, states should control and monitor natural and legal persons involved in space activity. They usually approve the required laws and regulations in their national law according to the international responsibilities in order to monitor their respective institutions. Monitoring space activities are on the basis of international law within the sovereignty of a country based on the regulatory environment for licensing space activities and establishing appropriate authority. Every state has its own mechanism for issuing the required licenses. However, there are common procedures to monitor space activities, such as launching in the international law, analyses monitoring space activities in national laws and regulations of some countries in comparative laws.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Outer space
  • Sovereignty
  • Responsibility
  • Monitor
  • Space activities

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