عنوان مقاله [English]
Endothelial cells differently respond to microgravity condition. The evolution of these responses leads to a more clear understanding of cardiovascular diseases in both gravity and micro-gravity conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microgravity condition on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor as a motivator for angiogenesis and vasculogenesis processes. A total of 20 rats were randomly divided into two groups including control group and suspension group. The results showed that the VEGF levels of suspension group were higher than control group but it was not significant (P> 0.05). It seems that the hindlimb suspension model used for stimulating microgravity condition does not affect the VEGF in serum levels in male Wistar rats. This may be the result of the body's adaptive response after six weeks. Another probable reason is that VEGF does not play an effective role in cardiovascular changes in microgravity condition. Also the influences of other factor may affect the results.
 Stuempfle, K. J. and Drury, D. G., “The Physiological Consequences of Bed Rest,” Journal of Exercise Physiology, Vol. 10, No. 3,2007, pp. 32-41.
 Vernikos, J. and Schneider, V. S., “Space, Gravity and the Physiology of Aging: Parallel or Convergent Disciplines? A Mini-review,” Gerontology, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2010, pp. 157-66.
 Adair, T. H. and Montani, J. P., Integrated Systems Physiology: from Molecule to Function to Disease, San Rafael (CA), 2010.
 DiPietro, L.A., “Angiogenesis and Wound Repair: when Enough is Enough,” Journal Leukoc Biol, Vol. 100, No. 5, 2016, pp. 979-984.
 Dadgarnia, H. and Hajebrahimi, Z., “The Effect of Microgravity Condition on Expression of VEGFR-2 Gene in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC),” Arak Medical University Journal , Vol. 19, No. 107, 2016, pp. 26-34.
 Morbidelli, L., Monici, M., Marziliano, N. and et al., “Simulated Hypogravity Impairs the Angiogenic Response of Endothelium by up-Regulating Apoptotic Signals,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 334, No. 2, 2005, pp. 491-9.
 Hargens, A.R. and Vico, L., “Long-Duration Bed Rest as an Analog to Microgravity,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 120, No. 8, 2016, pp. 891-903.
 Van Oosterhout, W.P., Terwindt, G.M., Vein, A.A. and Ferrari, M.D., “Space Headache on Earth: Head-down-tilted Bed Rest Studies Simulating Outer-Space Microgravity,” Cephalalgia: an International Journal of Headache, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2015, pp. 335-43.
 Bloor, C.M., “Angiogenesis during Exercise and Training,” Angiogenesis, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005, pp. 263-71.
Lobov, I.B., Brooks, P.C. and Lang, R.A., “Angiopoietin-2 Displays VEGF-Dependent Modulation of Capillary Structure and Endothelial Cell Survival Invivo,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, No. 17, 2002, pp. 11205-10.
Lloyd, P.G., Prior, B.M., Yang, H.T. and Terjung, R.L., “Angiogenic Growth Factor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle in Response to Exercise Training,” American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol. 284, No. 5, 2003, pp. H1668-78.
Sutherland, R.M., Sordat, B., Bamat, J. and et.al., “Oxygenation and Differentiation in Multicellular spheroids of human colon carcinoma,” Cancer Research, Vol. 46, No. 10, 1986, pp. 5320-9.
Morey-Holton, E.R. and Globus, R.K., “Hindlimb Unloading Rodent Model: Technical Aspects,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 92, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1367-77.
Yang, F., Cho, S.W., Son, S.M. and et al., “Genetic Engineering of Human Stem Cells for Enhanced Angiogenesis Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 8, 2010, pp. 3317-22.
Convertino, V.A., “Status of Cardiovascular Issues Related to Space Flight: Implications for Future Research Directions,” Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, Vol. 169, No. 1, 2009, pp. S34-7.
Vincent, L., Avancena, P., Cheng, J. and et.al., “Simulated Microgravity Impairs Leukemic Cell Survival through Altering VEGFR-2/VEGF-A Signaling Pathway,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1405-10.
Wagatsuma, A., Tamaki, H., Ogita, F., “Capillary Supply and Gene Expression of Angiogenesis-Related Factors in Murine Skeletal Muscle Following Denervation,” Experimental Physiology, Vol. 90, No. 3, 2005, pp. 403-409